Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.) is an increasingly appreciated leafy vegetable that exhibits great diversity in appearance, including different colored leaves, rosettes, or heads. Varieties of radicchio (‘Treviso’, ‘Verona’ ‘Anivip’, ‘Castelfranco’, and ‘Monivip’) commonly produced in Slovenia were investigated for their phenolic and fatty acid profiles. Plants were grown under organic and/or mineral fertilizer managements in greenhouse conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to study phenolic compounds in radicchio leaf samples. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were quantitatively evaluated. Significant differences were found between varieties and across different fertilizer managements. The total phenolic amount (TPA) was found in a wide range from 58 to 403 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Between varieties, the highest TPA was observed for var. ‘Treviso’ (300 mg/100 g FW) and the lowest TPA was observed for var. ‘Castelfranco’ (125 mg/100 g FW). The main phenolic compounds in radicchio leaves were represented by phenolic acids, chlorogenic acid and cichoric acid, respectively. The fatty acid levels of radicchio leaf samples were determined by the chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. The analysis revealed the amounts of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9, C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20:0 fatty acids. The total fatty acid levels varied from 170 to 500 mg/100 g FW. The highest fatty acid quantity was represented by C18:3n3 (≤63%) followed by C18:2n6 (≤45%) and C16:0 (≤24%). All radicchio samples had a ratio of n-6/n-3 essential fatty acids below 1 and thus in accordance with the current dietary guidelines. Among different fertilizer managements, the highest total fatty acid levels were found for organic fertilizer (384 mg/100 g FW).
Part of the book: Organic Fertilizers