Density functional theory (DFT) ranks as the most widely used quantum mechanical method and plays an increasingly larger role in a number of disciplines such as chemistry, physics, material, biology, and pharmacy. DFT has long been used to complement experimental investigations, while now it is also regarded as an indispensable and powerful tool for researchers of different fields. This book is divided into five sections that include original chapters written by experts in their fields: "Method Development and Validation," "Spectra and Thermodynamics," "Catalysis and Mechanism," "Material and Molecular Design," and "Multidisciplinary Integration." I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all contributors and recommend this book to both beginners and experienced researchers.Go to the book
Adsorption of ions at the interface of clay minerals and aqueous solutions plays a critical role in a wide spectrum of colloidal, chemical, physical, and geological processes. Owing to the particular complexity of related systems and the femtosecond scale of related processes, the direct experimental observations often become a challenging task. As a contrast, computer simulations have proven to be a competent and powerful approach therein and already realized fruitful and significant contributions. In this chapter, we attempt to draw a relatively comprehensive picture of the interfacial adsorption of ions mainly within the context of computer simulations. As elaborated, quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular dynamics (MD), two popular simulation techniques currently used, have respective advantages, and with their collaborative efforts, we are striding toward the in-depth and systematic understanding of adsorption configuration, distribution, stability, reaction thermodynamics and mechanism, dynamics, diffusivity as well as electric double layer and other fundamental issues that are closely associated with the adsorption of ions at the interface of clay minerals and aqueous solutions. In addition, we demonstrate that investigation of the interfacial adsorption of ions greatly helps to unravel the origin and mechanism of ion-specific effects, whose importance has been explicitly suggested to be no less than Gregor Mendel’s work to genetics.
Part of the book: Advances in Colloid Science
Soil is the basis for life and soil science is regarded as the final frontier; however, as compared to chemistry, physics, biology, and other disciplines, soil science undergoes an obviously slower development and remains almost stagnant in the past few decades, mainly due to two reasons: (1) wrong and outdated perceptions for a large portion of soil researchers; (2) complexity of soil systems that are difficult to characterize by current experimental techniques. Computer simulations have unique advantages to handle complex systems while currently, its role during soil researches is far from being recognized. In this chapter, several examples are given with respect to application of density functional theory (DFT) calculations to soil science, focusing on the adsorption of uranyl ion and SO2 onto mineral surfaces and reaction mechanisms to form acid rain. In this way, insightful clues at the atomic level are provided for the adsorption, interaction, and reactions regarding soil systems. We believe that computer simulations including DFT are the right key to unravel the complicated processes occurring in soils. More efforts of computer simulations are anticipated for soil science with aim to decipher the experimental results and probe the uncharted principles that may result in a revolutionary in the near future.
Part of the book: Density Functional Calculations