Over the years, improved understanding of the nature of bone-implant interface is among the important contributors to the success of osseointegration in modern dental implantology. The focus has since shifted to the assessment of the soft tissue-implant interface to better understand the mechanism of biological seal in the transmucosal region. The importance of peri-implant mucosal region lies in the need to establish a tight seal that isolates implant and the bone from the oral environment via epithelial and connective tissue attachment, thus preventing ingrowth of bacterial plaque. Many factors may influence the soft tissue attachment at this peri-implant interface. In this chapter, the dimension of peri-implant tissues and the factors affecting the biological seal, namely surface topography and physicochemical properties, are discussed. The review also looks into the impact of the type of materials and surface modifications of dental implant, all of which may influence the formation of biological seal of soft tissue around the dental implant.
Part of the book: Dental Implantology and Biomaterial
Most of the corticosteroids prescribed in dentistry are for topical applications or short-term usage, rarely for its systemic effects or for long-term consumption, as in the treatment of some medical conditions. Among the various specialties in dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral medicine and endodontics are the more frequent users of corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are used in oral and maxillofacial procedures to reduce associated post-operative inflammation. The most researched outcome on the use of corticosteroids in oral and maxillofacial surgery revolves around their impact to reduce post-operative pain, swelling and trismus. Topical corticosteroids, on the other hand, are effective in treating various oral mucosal lesions including oral ulcerations and oral presentations of auto-immune diseases. Corticosteroids are also used as part of the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders. Intracanal placement of corticosteroids is used in endodontic treatment. This chapter reviews the use of corticosteroids in the three specialties of dentistry as mentioned.
Part of the book: Corticosteroids