A comprehensive study of some populations of honeybee (332 colonies) in Siberia (Tomsk region, Krasnoyarsk Krai (Yenisei population), Altai) using morphometric and molecular genetic methods was conducted. Infestation of bees (132 colonies) by Nosema has also been studied. Three variants of the COI-COII mtDNA locus were registered: PQQ, PQQQ (typical for Apis m. mellifera), and Q (specific for southern races). It was established that 64% of bee colonies from the Tomsk region and all colonies studied from the Krasnoyarsk and the Altai territories originate from Apis m. mellifera on the maternal line. According to the morphometric study, the majority of bee colonies of the Tomsk region are hybrids; in some colonies the mismatch of morphometric and mtDNA data was observed. Moreover, the majority of bee colonies infected by Nosema were hybrids. Yenisei population may be considered as a unique Apis m. mellifera population. Microsatellite analysis (loci А008, Ap049, AC117, AC216, Ap243, H110, A024, A113) showed the specific distribution of genotypes and alleles for some loci in the bees, which differ by geographical location. Loci A024 and Ap049 are of considerable interest for further study as candidate markers for differentiation of subspecies; locus A008 can be considered informative for determining of different ecotypes of Apis m. mellifera.
Part of the book: Beekeeping and Bee Conservation
A comprehensive research of two dark-colored forest bee populations in Siberia, identified during a screening study, was conducted using morphometric and molecular genetic methods. The first population is an isolated Yenisei population located in the taiga zone in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, on which bees have not been imported for a long time (50–60 years). The second population is located in the northern areas of the Tomsk region, where beekeeping is more developed. All studied bees had a variant PQQ of the COI–COII mtDNA locus. However, some morphometric parameters of some bee colonies deviated from the Apis mellifera mellifera standard, which is probably due to the features of population formation. As a result of the analysis of the variability of 18 microsatellite loci, possible potential DNA markers specific for determining the bee subspecies and/or ecotypes of the dark-colored forest bee have been identified. An algorithm for the search and a comprehensive study of the dark-colored forest bee are proposed.
Part of the book: Selected Studies in Biodiversity