Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease of prematurity, and is the most common morbidity associated with preterm birth. Severe BPD is defined currently as a supplemental oxygen requirement at 28 days of age and a need for >30% oxygen and/or positive pressure at 36 weeks of corrected gestational age (CGA) in an infant born at <32 weeks of gestational age. The vast majority of severe BPD is characterized by high lung resistance, such that ventilation approaches must consider the relatively long time constants needed to adequately ventilate all portions of the lung to maximize ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) matching. At the same time, any ventilation strategy must take into account the vulnerable neurodevelopmental stage that characterizes the preterm infant with severe BPD. To maximize neurodevelopmental outcomes the ventilation strategy must avoid chronic use of sedation. In this chapter, we present the physiology underlying a low-rate, high-volume ventilation approach that maximizes V/Q matching, while optimizing neurodevelopment in patients with severe BPD.
Part of the book: Respiratory Management of Newborns
The use of mechanical ventilation in the past few decades has greatly contributed to the survival of critically ill neonates, both preterm and term. With this, however, has come an accompanied rise in certain complications and neonatal co-morbidities. Avoiding mechanical ventilation, or at least minimizing the time a neonate is intubated, is considered a critical goal in the care of these patients. Different modes of non-invasive ventilation have developed over the course of the time to help address these issues.
Part of the book: Noninvasive Ventilation in Medicine
The “Golden Hour” model of care originated in adult trauma medicine. Recently, this concept has been applied to premature neonates and the care they receive immediately after birth. This is not limited to the first hour of life, however, as this approach encompasses the first hours and days after birth. While no universal description defines the Golden Hour model, critical domains include initial delivery room management, thermoregulation, ventilation and oxygenation, glycemic control and prevention of infection. Strong evidence favors standardization of care to improve short- and long-term outcomes. This approach to care for the most at-risk premature infant is typically institution-specific; thus, team-building and quality improvement are critical to the care of these vulnerable patients.
Part of the book: Neonatal Medicine