This chapter summarizes studies that examine remodelling of extracellular matrix (ECM) and role of regulatory factors of ECM during unloading and reloading. Hypokinesia has a catabolic effect on both the contractile apparatus and ECM of the skeletal muscle, causing the formation of muscle atrophy, the decrease of the synthesis of contractile proteins and disturbance of the collagen metabolism. The metabolism of fibrillar and non-fibrillar collagens in ECM plays a crucial role in exercise and sport, influencing the strength development through transmission of contractile force in skeletal muscle. The impairment of motor activity and muscle strength is accompanied by the muscle atrophy. The muscle atrophy caused by inactivity and recovery from atrophy demonstrates the plasticity of muscle. Muscle mass and volume increase in a relatively short time, but the recovery of strength takes much longer and is related with the regeneration of the muscle structures. The recovery period of the contractile apparatus and ECM structures is different in slow-and fast-twitch skeletal muscle.
Part of the book: Composition and Function of the Extracellular Matrix in the Human Body