The antimicrobial or antagonistic activity of probiotics is an important property that includes the production of antimicrobial compounds, competitive exclusion of pathogens, enhancement of the intestinal barrier function and others. There are many methods to ascertain probiotic properties, including various in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vivo methods include various modifications of the spot‐on lawn assay, agar well diffusion assay (AWDA), co‐culturing methods, usage of cell lines and others. In many cases in vitro antagonist activity is observed, but in real settings it is not observed. The in vivo methods mainly used are animal models; however, their use is being restricted according to the European legislation OJ L136. The justification of animal models is also questionable as the results of studies on animals do not predict the same results for humans. The use of replacement alternative methods, for example incorporating human cells and tissues, avoids such confounding variables. Most important studies are double‐blinded randomized clinical trials; however, these studies are difficult to perform as it is not easy to achieve uniform conditions. There is a clear need for more elaborate assays that would better represent the complex interactions between the probiotics and the final host. This complex situation is a challenge for scientists.
Part of the book: Probiotics and Prebiotics in Human Nutrition and Health
Aim: To explore relationships between caregivers’ education, healthcare working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and caregivers’ general job satisfaction.
Part of the book: Teaching and Learning in Nursing