Considerable efforts have been devoted to the research of high-performance and long-lifespan lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for their applications in large-scale power units. As one of the most important components in LIBs, anode plays an important role in determining the overall performance of LIBs. Nowadays, graphite has been the most successfully commercialized anode material. However, its limited theoretical capacity (372 mA h g−1) and limited power density seems insufficient for the next-generation LIBs. To overcome these problems, new materials with fundamentally higher capacity and higher power density are urgently needed. Recently, there is an ever-increasing interest in developing novel carbonaceous nanomaterials to replace graphite as the anode materials for LIBs. Such materials have included carbon spheres, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), porous monoliths, and graphene. Among these alternative forms of carbon, CNFs and its morphological-controlled derivatives (such as porous or hollow CNFs) have attracted much attention due to their unique and interesting properties such as one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure, good electronic conductivity, and large surface areas. Moreover, these CNFs can be used to encapsulate various second phases to form some functional composite, meeting further requirements including higher energy density, higher power density or flexible requirements, for the advanced LIB operation.
Part of the book: Alkali-ion Batteries