Diamond in the allotrope form consists of carbon atoms arranged in a cubic crystal structure covalently bonded in sp3 hybridization. Diamond has emerged as a very promising material for various biomedical applications due to its excellent mechanical properties (hardness, low friction coefficient, good adhesiveness to the underlying substrate, good interlayer cohesion), optical properties (the ability to emit intrinsic luminescence), electrical properties (good insulator in the pristine state and semiconductor after doping), chemical resistance (low chemical reactivity and resistance to wet etching) and biocompatibility (little if any toxicity and immunogenicity). For advanced biomedical applications, diamond is promising particularly in its nanostructured forms, namely nanoparticles, nanostructured diamond films and composite scaffolds in which diamond nanoparticles are dispersed in a matrix (mainly nanodiamond-loaded nanofibrous scaffolds). This chapter summarizes both our long-term experience and that of other research groups in studies focusing on the interaction of cells (particularly bone-derived cells) with nanodiamonds as nanoparticles, thin films and composites with synthetic polymers. Their potential applications in bioimaging, biosensing, drug delivery, biomaterial coating and tissue engineering are also reviewed.
Part of the book: Diamond and Carbon Composites and Nanocomposites
Nanofibers are promising cell carriers for tissue engineering of a variety of tissues and organs in the human organism. They have been experimentally used for reconstruction of tissues of cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Nanofibers are also promising for drug and gene delivery, construction of biosensors and biostimulators, and wound dressings. Nanofibers can be created from a wide range of natural polymers or synthetic biostable and biodegradable polymers. For hard tissue engineering, polymeric nanofibers can be reinforced with various ceramic, metal-based or carbon-based nanoparticles, or created directly from hard materials. The nanofibrous scaffolds can be loaded with various bioactive molecules, such as growth, differentiation and angiogenic factors, or funcionalized with ligands for the cell adhesion receptors. This review also includes our experience in skin tissue engineering using nanofibers fabricated from polycaprolactone and its copolymer with polylactide, cellulose acetate, and particularly from polylactide nanofibers modified by plasma activation and fibrin coating. In addition, we studied the interaction of human bone-derived cells with nanofibrous scaffolds loaded with hydroxyapatite or diamond nanoparticles. We also created novel nanofibers based on diamond deposition on a SiO2 template, and tested their effects on the adhesion, viability and growth of human vascular endothelial cells.
Part of the book: Nanofiber Research
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of the blood vessels. In a healthy adult organism, VSMCs are quiescent, but after a blood vessel injury, they undergo phenotypic modulation from the contractile phenotype to the synthetic phenotype, characterized by high activity in migration, proliferation and proteosynthesis. This behavior of VSMCs can lead to stenosis or obliteration of the vascular lumen. For this reason, VSMCs have tended to be avoided in the construction of blood vessel replacements. However, VSMCs are a physiological and the most numerous component of blood vessels, so their presence in novel advanced vascular replacements is indispensable. Either differentiated VSMCs or stem cells as precursors of VSMCs can be used in the reconstruction of the tunica media in these replacements. VSMCs can be obtained from blood vessels (usually from subcutaneous veins) taken surgically from the patients and can be expanded in vitro. During in vitro cultivation, VSMCs lose their differentiation markers, at least partly. These cells should therefore be re-differentiated by seeding them on appropriate scaffolds by composing cell culture media and by mechanical stimulation in dynamic bioreactors. Similar approaches can also be applied for differentiating stem cells, particularly adipose tissue-derived stem cells, toward VSMCs for the purposes of vascular tissue engineering.
Part of the book: Muscle Cell and Tissue
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles not only in the physiological functions of the blood vessels, such as vasoconstriction, vasodilatation and extracellular matrix production, but also in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, particularly atherosclerosis and hypertension. VSMCs are mostly of mesodermal origin, although some are of neuroectodermal origin, for example, VSMCs present in the aorta and in blood vessels arising from the aortic arch. VSMCs of neuroectodermal origin are implicated in defects of cardiovascular morphogenesis, such as bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, patent ductus arteriosus and tetralogy of Fallot. The origin, location in the vascular tree, gender, species, strain and age influence the phenotype of VSMCs and their propensity to migration and growth. In a healthy adult organism, VSMCs have a quiescent and differentiated contractile phenotype characterized by early markers (e.g., SM α-actin, SM22-α), intermediate markers (h-caldesmon, calponin) and late markers (SM myosins, smoothelin) of VSMC differentiation. However, after blood vessel injury, surgery or explantation in vitro, VSMCs undergo a phenotypic modulation to synthetic phenotype, which endows them with high activity in migration, growth and proteosynthesis. These features can lead to stenosis or to obliteration of the vascular lumen and impaired blood supply to various tissues and organs.
Part of the book: Muscle Cell and Tissue
Nanofibrous scaffolds belong to the most suitable materials for tissue engineering, because they mimic the fibrous component of the natural extracellular matrix. This chapter is focused on the application of nanofibers in skin tissue engineering and wound healing, because the skin is the largest and vitally important organ in the human body. Nanofibrous meshes can serve as substrates for adhesion, growth and differentiation of skin and stem cells, and also as an antimicrobial and moisture-retaining barrier. These meshes have been prepared from a wide range of synthetic and nature-derived polymers. This chapter is focused on the use of nature-derived polymers. These polymers have good or limited degradability in the human tissues, which depends on their origin and on the presence of appropriate enzymes in the human tissues. Non-degradable and less-degradable polymers are usually produced in bacteria, fungi, algae, plants or insects, and include, for example, cellulose, dextran, pullulan, alginate, pectin and silk fibroin. Well-degradable polymers are usually components of the extracellular matrix in the human body or at least in other vertebrates, and include collagen, elastin, keratin and hyaluronic acid, although some polymers produced by non-vertebrate organisms, such as chitosan or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), are also degradable in the human body.
Part of the book: Current and Future Aspects of Nanomedicine
Nanofibrous scaffolds are popular materials in all areas of tissue engineering, because they mimic the fibrous component of the natural extracellular matrix. In this chapter, we focused on the application of nanofibers in skin tissue engineering and wound healing, because the skin is an organ with several vitally important functions, particularly barrier, thermoregulatory, and sensory functions. Nanofibrous meshes not only serve as carriers for skin cells but also can prevent the penetration of microbes into wounds and can keep appropriate moisture in the damaged skin. The nanofibrous meshes have been prepared from a wide range of synthetic and nature-derived polymers. This review is concentrated on synthetic non-degradable and degradable polymers, which have been explored for skin tissue engineering and wound healing. These synthetic polymers were often combined with natural polymers of the protein or polysaccharide nature, which improved their attractiveness for cell colonization. The nanofibrous scaffolds can also be loaded with various bioactive molecules, such as growth factors, hormones, vitamins, antioxidants, antimicrobial, and antitumor agents. In advanced tissue engineering approaches, the cells on the nanofibrous scaffolds are cultured in dynamic bioreactors enabling appropriate mechanical stimulation of cells and at air-liquid interface. This chapter summarizes recent results achieved in the field of nanofiber-based skin tissue engineering, including results of our research group.
Part of the book: Applications of Nanobiotechnology