Natural gas comes from the decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions in a process that occurred around 150 million years ago, which allows the gas trapping between rock pore spaces (porous system). Even though natural gas has become one of the most used fuels around the world, there are other spontaneous, continuous, ongoing, or inducing processes that can produce a similar gas in a short time (considering human scale); we refer to biogas. The aim of this chapter is to describe the biomass potential from organic residues for biogas production. The first part explains the biomass as an energy source, a comparison between natural gas reserves and sources of biogas with a global perspective of their energy contribution. The main biomass conversion technologies followed by case studies are shown in the second part. Finally, the biomethanization process is covered as a promising way to valorize some biomass residues into natural gas. Information about where and how the biogas can be contained, controlled, and distributed is provided. This chapter focuses in considering biogas as an alternative in the fuel demand with the advantage of coming from a renewable source, providing electricity, heat, or transport, and the generation of by-products.
Part of the book: Advances in Natural Gas Emerging Technologies