Mammalian milk is a complex fluid mixture of various proteins, minerals, and lipids, which play an important role in providing nutrition and immunity to the newborn. Casein proteins, which form about 80% of the bovine milk proteins, form large colloidal particles with calcium phosphate to form casein micelles, which for many years have been an important subject of interest. Casein micelles are composed of four main types of proteins: αS1‐casein, αS2‐casein, β‐casein, and k‐casein. These constituent casein proteins lack well‐defined secondary and tertiary structure due to large amount of propyl residues. These micelles are being extensively studied because of their importance in functional behavior of milk and various milk products. However, the exact structure and nature of these casein micelles are still under debate. These different casein proteins possess different functional properties due to their primary amino acid sequence.
Part of the book: Milk Proteins