This review discusses recent findings that have challenged the long-held dogma in the field that reduction in reaction oxygen species (ROS) would improve clinical outcome in the patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Attempts will be made to shed light on the differential spatial and temporal roles of subcellular ROS in vascular endothelium in health and disease. Recent findings demonstrating that above-physiological levels of endothelial cell (EC)-specific NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in vivo exert beneficial effects on vascular endothelium will be discussed. The paradoxical roles of ROS in CVD suggest that subcellular sources and types of ROS may play crucial roles in the prevention, development, and progression of CVD. A better understanding of the precise mechanisms by which subcellular ROS modulate cardiovascular health and functions will certainly better prepare us with effective treatment modalities for CVD.
Part of the book: Free Radicals and Diseases