Over the past two decades, one of the research topics in which many works have been done is spatial modeling of biomass through synergies between remote sensing, forestry, and ecology. In order to identify satellite-derived indices that have correlation with forest structural parameters that are related with carbon storage inventories and forest monitoring, topics that are useful as environmental tools of public policies to focus areas with high environmental value. In this chapter, we present a review of different models of spatial distribution of biomass and resources based on remote sensing that are widely used. We present a case study that explores the capability of canopy fraction cover and digital canopy height model (DCHM) for modeling the spatial distribution of the aboveground biomass of two forests, dominated by Abies Religiosa and Pinus spp., located in Central Mexico. It also presents a comparison of different spatial models and products, in order to know the methods that achieved the highest accuracy through root-mean-square error. Lastly, this chapter provides concluding remarks on the case study and its perspectives in remote sensing-based biomass estimation.
Part of the book: Environmental Applications of Remote Sensing
Mapping urban form at regional and local scales is a crucial task for discerning the influence of urban expansion upon the ecosystem and the surrounding environment. Remotely sensed imagery is ideally used to monitor and detect urban areas that occur frequently as a consequence of incessant urbanization. It is a lengthy process to convert satellite imagery into urban form map using the existing methods of manual interpretation and parametric image classification digitally. In this work, classification techniques of high-resolution satellite imagery were used to map 50 selected cities of study of the National Urban System in Mexico, during 2015–2016. In order to process the information, 140 RapidEye Ortho Tile multispectral satellite imageries with a pixel size of 5 m were downloaded, divided into 5 × 5 km tiles and then 639 tiles were generated. In each (imagery or tile), classification methods were tested, such as: artificial neural networks (RNA), support vector machines (MSV), decision trees (AD), and maximum likelihood (MV); after tests, urban and nonurban categories were obtained. The result is validated with an accuracy method that follows a stratified random sampling of 16 points for each tile. It is expected that these results can be used in the construction of spatial metrics that explain the differences in the Mexican urban areas.
Part of the book: Satellite Information Classification and Interpretation