Nanofluids exhibit novel properties including significant heat transfer properties that make them potentially useful in internal combustion engine cooling. However, although there is a substantial number of mechanisms proposed, modeling works related to their enhanced thermal conductivity, systematic mechanisms, or models that are suitable for nanofluids are still lacked. With molecular dynamics simulations, thermal conductivities of nanofluids with various nanoparticles have been calculated. Influence rule of various factors for thermal conductivity of nanofluids has been studied. Through defining the ratio of thermal conductivity enhancement by nanoparticle volume fraction, Κ, the impacts of nanoparticle properties for thermal conductivity are further evaluated. Furthermore, the ratio of energetic atoms in nanoparticles, E, is proposed to be an effective criterion for judging the impact of nanoparticles for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Mechanisms of heat conduction enhancement are investigated by MD simulations. Altered microstructure and movements of nanoparticles in the base fluid are proposed to be the main reasons for thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids. Both the static and dynamic mechanisms for heat conduction enhancement in nanofluids have been considered to establish a prediction model for thermal conductivity. The prediction results of the present model are in good agreement with experimental results.
Part of the book: Nanofluid Heat and Mass Transfer in Engineering Problems