Membrane processes which combine the physical separation through filtration and pollutant degradation or antibacterial properties achieved by photocatalysis in a single unit are gaining popularity as wastewater treatment alternatives. There has been considerable progress in the development of photocatalytic membranes through incorporation of metal-oxide photocatalysts to enhance the performance of the membranes. An optimum amount of the photocatalyst should be incorporated into the membrane in order to realise reasonable photocatalytic activity with minimal consequences on water flux. Besides TiO2 loading, membrane performance is also affected by light intensity and irradiation time. This chapter highlights some of the recent progresses in photocatalytic membrane fabrication, reactor configuration and membrane application in disinfection and pollutant removal from wastewater.
Part of the book: Semiconductor Photocatalysis
Research and development in chemical engineering is currently focused on design of highly active and selective catalytic systems for process intensification. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of catalysts based on nanosized metal particles to improve catalytic processes. Among the many metal catalysts, platinum group metals (PGMs) have received greater attention because of their physical and catalytic properties. They have found applications in a wide range of chemical conversion and environmental decontamination reactions due to their chemical stability and enhanced catalytic reactivity in the nano range. This chapter reviews some of the major innovative applications of PGM nanocatalysts for catalytic environmental decontamination.
Part of the book: Nanocatalysts