Biomarkers of reactive oxygen species serve as indicators of oxidative stress in the pathology of cardiovascular diseases. This chapter presents an overview of the various biomarkers available to quantify oxidative stress to advance the understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases as well as to serve as an adjunct in their diagnosis and prognosis. The plasma levels of reactive oxygen species themselves are unstable and unreliable markers of oxidative stress. The commonly used stable biomarkers are derivatives of oxygen radicals such as products of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, with isoprostanes and malondialdehyde (MDA) being the most widely used biomarkers due to higher specificity and ease of measurement. Recently, micro‐RNA is emerging as stable and specific biomarkers for detection of heart failure. Other biomarkers have a role in certain conditions; for example, advanced oxidation protein products indicate acute inflammation, whereas advanced glycation end products serve as indicators of chronic disease.
Part of the book: Free Radicals and Diseases