Modern aero engine components are subjected to extreme conditions were high wear rate, excessive fatigue cycles, and severe thermal attack are inevitable. These aggressive conditions reduce the service life of components. Its generic effect is magnified in the light of understanding the fact that aero engine parts are highly sensitive to functional and dimensional precision; therefore, repair and replacement are great factors that promote downtime during operation. Hard thermal barrier coatings have been used in recent times due to their optimized properties for maximum load bearing proficiency with high temperature capability to meet performance and durability required. Nevertheless, less emphasis is being given to the coating-substrate interaction. Functionally graded structures have better synergy and flexibility in composition than coatings, giving rise to controlled microstructure and improved properties in withstanding acute state of affairs. Such materials can be fabricated using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), a laser-based additive manufacturing technique. LENS™ offers a great deal in rapid prototyping, repair, and fabrication of three-dimensional dense structures with superior properties in comparison with traditionally fabricated structures. The manufacture of aero engine components with functionally graded materials, using LENS™, can absolutely mitigate the nuisance of buy-to-fly ratio, lost time in repair and maintenance, and maximize controlled dimension and multi-geometric properties, enhanced wear resistance, and high temperature strength. This review presents an extensive contribution in terms of insightful understanding of processing parameters and their interactions on fabrication of functionally graded stainless steel, which definitely influence the final product quality.
Part of the book: Fiber Laser
The financial prudence of the global world is shaken due to the vigor induced by corrosion as the degradation of essential assets, namely, oil and gas platforms and marine machineries, appears as a red-flagged situation. The exacerbation created by chemical degradation of these assets is as a result of the presence of saltwater, and the highly dominating activity of salt in the atmosphere poses a critical influence in selecting the mode of corrosion prevention to be integrated. As the hunger for longer term service and cost effectiveness of protection increases, studies are clustered in the search of new corrosion-resistant coatings while adhering to the increasing stringent environmental code of practice. Porosity is a key factor which is considered in the development of corrosion-resistant coatings, stimulating localized forms of corrosion, such as galvanic and crevice corrosion. Nevertheless, researches have been implemented to coin this challenge by acquiring full understanding of effective parameters of salt bath conditions, their interactions, and influence on the degree of uniform electrodeposition. A significant contribution is presented in the light of reviewing the possibility of computational analysis of system and design parameters in optimizing the deposition rate and quality.
Part of the book: Applied Studies of Coastal and Marine Environments
The issue of corrosion and degradation has been evaluated as one of the major sources of concern in the history and trend of materials development and their applications in engineering. Design, process, and production consideration of materials hinge on the motive of built-to-last technology in their lifetime applications. The “World Corrosion Organization” has calculated that the direct cost of corrosion worldwide is over 3% of global gross domestic product (GDP)—approximately US$2.2 trillion—every year.
Part of the book: Electrodeposition of Composite Materials
Nowadays, synergy of the attractive properties of materials while avoiding limitations of their use in isolation is a major driver for flexibility in design and manufacture. This allows tailoring of materials’ properties to meet specifications. Composite technology utilizes an excellent combination of properties: strength, stiffness, light weight, wear, chemical, corrosion, and temperature resistance, which transcend those of the constituent materials. Engineering structures, equipment, and vessels in key industries that are material-dependent are susceptible to deterioration process and damage over time in their service conditions. Composite coatings through electro-deposition offer a reliable cost-effective means of impacting special surface properties for corrosion protection, better appearance, and mechanical properties’ enhancement. The properties of the composite coatings can be optimized by varying the type, size, amount and distribution of the particles content incorporated among others.
Part of the book: Electrodeposition of Composite Materials
Titanium aluminides has the potential of replacing nickel-based superalloys in the aerospace industries because its density is almost half that of nickel-based alloys. Nevertheless, the room temperature properties (ductility) have made the wider application of this class of intermetallic alloy far from being realized. This has led to various research been carried out in adjusting the production processing and/or material through alloying, heat treatment, ingot metallurgy, powder metallurgy and most recently additive manufacturing processing. One of the additive manufacturing processing of titanium aluminide is laser engineered net shaping (LENS). It is used to produce components from powders by melting and forming on a substrate based on a computer-aided design (CAD) to shape the components. This contribution will focus on the laser processing of titanium aluminides components for aerospace applications. Also, the challenges confronting this processing techniques as well as suggested finding to solve the problems would be outlined. The objective of this work is to present an insight into how titanium aluminides components have been developed by researchers with emphasis on aerospace applications.
Part of the book: Aerodynamics