Currently some principles of sustainability, eco-efficiency and green chemistry are guiding the development of a new generation of materials as an alternative to conventional polymers based on petroleum. Then, in the field of biodegradable polymers one of the most promising investigations is focused on the use of microbial cellulose (MC), biocellulose or bacterial cellulose. MC has received substantial interest since it is synthesized from the bacterium Gluconacetobacter genus from a variety of carbon sources such as glucose, fructose, galactose, etc. MC is an interesting emerging biomaterial, with no toxicity, and since its discovery has shown tremendous potential in various fields, because the structural aspect of MC is far superior to those of plant cellulose. Thus, the main focus of the chapter review involves detailed aspects about the biosynthesis and recent advances on microbial production, including mechanism for the biochemistry of the cellulose synthesis, new sources for culture medium, main aspects about static and air-reactor productions and genetic modifications. We also revised microbial cellulose devices for biomedical applications: artificial skin, artificial blood vessels and microvessels, wound dressing of second- or third-degree burn ulcers, scaffolds for tissue engineering, drug delivery systems, dental implants, among others.
Part of the book: Cellulose