Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the associated muscles turn possible mandibular movements as a complex engineering appliance that may be affected by signs and symptoms such as pain, including in head and neck areas, abnormal jaw movement and clicking or crepitus sounds, classified as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Some procedures such as discopexy, eminectomy, or arthroplasties, which we consider conservative, can result in ankylosis, even resorption and joint degeneration, limiting surgical options to treat TMJ. The alloplastic prosthesis becomes an option. Total joint reconstruction using prosthesis becomes the treatment choice during the following conditions: previous surgeries including autogenous grafts fail; presence of arthritic diseases; fibrous or bony ankylosis; tumors involving the TMJ; loss of vertical posterior mandible dimension by other TMJ pathologies; and previous prosthetic joint fail. The use of TMJ prosthesis, when compared to other reconstructive procedures, provides immediate function, reducing the duration of surgery and hospitalization time. Disadvantages of the TMJ prosthesis include high cost, prosthesis failure, functional mandibular movements loss, such as protrusion and laterality, and limited fit of stock prosthesis.
Part of the book: A Textbook of Advanced Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery