This chapter outlines the role of livestock in the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contributes to climate change. Livestock contribute both directly and indirectly to climate change through the emissions of GHGs such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). As animal production systems are vulnerable to climate change and are large contributors to potential global warming, it is vital to understand in detail enteric CH4 emission and manure management in different livestock species. Methane emissions from livestock are estimated to be approximately 2.2 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalents, accounting for about 80% of agricultural CH4 and 35% of the total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Furthermore, the global livestock sector contributes about 75% of the agricultural N2O emissions. Other sources of GHG emission from livestock and related activities are fossil fuels used for associated farm activities, N2O emissions from fertilizer use, CH4 release from the breakdown of fertilizers and from animal manure, and land-use changes for feed production. There are several techniques available to quantify CH4 emission, and simulation models offer a scope to predict accurately the GHG emission from a livestock enterprise as a whole. Quantifying GHG emission from livestock may pave the way for understanding the role of livestock to climate change and this will help in designing appropriate mitigation strategies to reduce livestock-related GHGs.
Part of the book: Greenhouse Gases
Heat stress affects the fertility and reproductive livestock performance by compromising the physiology reproductive tract, through hormonal imbalance, decreased oocyte quality and poor semen quality, and decreased embryo development and survival. Heat stress decreases the secretion of luteinizing hormone and estradiol resulting in reduced length and intensity of estrus expression, increased incidence of anoestrus and silent heat in farm animals. Oocytes exposed to thermal stress lose its competence for fertilization and development into the blastocyst stage, which results in decreased fertility because of the production of poor quality oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, low progesterone secretion limits the endometrial functions, and subsequently embryo development. In addition, the increased secretion of endometrial prostaglandin F2 alpha during heat stress threatens the maintenance of pregnancy. In general, the percentage of conception rate was found to be reduced by 4.6% for each unit increase in temperature humidity index (THI) above 70, and heat stress during pregnancy further slows down the growth of the foetus and results in lower birth weight. In tropical and subtropical regions, during hot days, the testicular temperature may increase and impair both the spermatogenic cycle and semen quality, which culminates in decreased bull fertility. The effects of heat stress on livestock can be minimized via adapting suitable scientific strategies comprising physical modifications of the environment, nutritional management and genetic development of breeds that are less sensitive to heat stress. In addition, the summer infertility may be countered through advanced reproductive technologies involving hormonal treatments, timed artificial insemination and embryo transfer, which may enhance the chances for establishing pregnancy in farm animals.
Part of the book: Theriogenology
The biochemical and metabolic activities of living cells are virtually stopped at ultralow temperature and they enter into a suspended state of animation. However, as such, exposure of living cells to ultralow temperature is associated with complex changes that reduce their survivability following freeze-thawing. Cryopreservation is the method for preserving living cells at ultralow temperature at genetically and physiologically stabilized state. Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos is an integral part of the assisted reproductive technologies with many potential applications. Cryobanking of oocytes and embryos derived from genetically superior animals is promising for enhancing the outcome of planned breeding programs and conserving biodiversity of endangered animal species. Cryobanking can also ensure steady supply of oocytes and embryos for many downstream applications of assisted reproduction such as in vitro embryo production, embryo transfer, production of stem cells, and genetic engineering. Tremendous advancements have been made in this field over the past 5 decades and several methods have been demonstrated for cryopreserving oocytes and embryos in different species. This chapter focuses on the fundamental aspects of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation.
Part of the book: Infertility, Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Hormone Assays