Chikungunya, a widely spread viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes aegypti, is on rise in India, Africa and Asian subcontinent since last decade. Although chemical insecticides are used at a large scale for the control of Chikungunya vector, their applications have led to several undesirable effects including insecticide resistance, revival of pests species, appearance of secondary pests, environmental pollution, noxious hazards to human beings and non-target organisms forcing investigators to explore unconventional alternate strategies. As an environment-friendly approach, there is increased attention to devise and adopt suitable methods to utilize wastes as value-added products to reduce the problem of environmental pollution. Consequently, the larvicidal and adult irritant potential of hexane and petroleum ether peel extracts of three different Citrus species, C. limetta, C. sinensis and C. Limon, were assessed against Ae. aegypti. The results showed the larvicidal potential of all the three peels, C. limetta peel extracts exhibiting the least activity. Furthermore, hexane extracts were more effective than petroleum ether extracts, C. sinensis peels hexane extract being most effectual (LC50, 39.51 ppm) while petroleum ether peels extract of C. limon was the most effective larvicide with LC50 value of 51.25 ppm. All the extracts also exhibited significant elicit response and irritant potential against adults signifying their potential role in reduced mosquito bites and disease transmission. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed presence of certain components suggesting their probable role in bioefficacy of extracts. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active ingredient to formulate strategies for mosquito control.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Chikungunya