With the development in hard drive and permanent magnet industry, higher saturation magnetization (Ms) or magnetic induction (Bs) material is on high demand. According to the Slater-Pauling curve, the highest Bs value is ~2.45 T, which belongs to FeCo alloy. However, in 1972, Kim and Takahashi  announced that the new material Fe-N thin film exhibited an increase in the Bs value of 18%. From then on, tons of research works [2, 3, 4] had been dedicated in this area with conclusions on both sides, achieving either high Bs or low Bs. Among those works, the Bs values were obtained from the measurement of the thin film magnetic moment and its volume, which might cause a considerable amount of error depending on the accuracy of the film thickness and area measurement. Other concerns also include the uncertainty of Ms value due to the subtraction of Fe underlayer. Indeed, a direct measurement of Bs is the key to clarify the discrepancies between these results. Here, we are presenting the method of polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) to measure the Bs of the partially ordered Fe16N2 thin film. PNR allows the interface magnetism study,  the absolute magnetization determination and magnetic depth profile in single thin films, [6, 7, 8, 9] and complicated superlattice structures. [10, 11] In the following scenarios, different partially ordered Fe16N2 thin films are fabricated and are measured using PNR subsequently. Their Bs values are obtained using the fitting results of nuclear scattering length density (NSLD) and magnetic scattering length density (MSLD). Also, a PNR application on FeN thin film will also help us to understand the switching picture of the FeN thin film with external applied field.
Part of the book: Neutron Scattering