Part of the book: Wave Propagation
The review of the effect of annealing and doping zinc oxide thin films on both the structural and optical properties has been carried out for different growth techniques such as sol–gel growth technique. The structural and optical properties were carried out using thin films were characterized SEM, XRD while TE and TM guided mode spectra, UV–VIS–NIR (HR4000Ocean Optics) and UV–Visible spectrometry were used accordingly respectively. From the results, it was clearly observed the both the morphological and the crystal characteristics structural characteristic, although increase in the percent of doping element affected it as the diffraction peak was shifts slightly to a lower angle side with report that crystal structure of the film deteriorate at a higher doping concentration of doping element as it decreases the c-lattice. There was also adjustment on the band gap of the material when it was annealed at various temperatures and also when the doping concentration was varied. The film exhibited lower absorbance, high transmittance depend on the regions of electromagnetic wave spectra.
Part of the book: Sol-Gel Method