RNA interference has a close relationship with the host defense system including adaptive immunity. It is not only involved in regulating immune cells at different stages of the immune response but also directly induces or enhances antigen presentation and subsequent immune responses. We have previously reported that a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted the downstream site of a dominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncogene E7 can stimulate an immune response against E7 expressing tumors in C57BL/6 mice. This results in the elimination of tumor growth in vivo, whereas an shRNA that targets the upstream site does not. Our recent data further confirm the long half-life of the 5'-mRNA fragment after shRNA degradation and its involvement in protein synthesis. This chapter summarizes these findings and provides some updated explanations for the findings.
Part of the book: RNA Interference