Recently, new single or hybrid/combined processes have attracted much attention for treatment of textile and dyeing wastewaters. These processes which may be termed as “state of the art technologies” are membrane separation processes, ultrasonic, photochemical and electrochemical processes. Although the conventional methods still have been tried with some new materials such as, new adsorbents or coagulants, employing the new generation methods such as, electrocagulation-electrooxidation, sonooxidation or photo oxidation are gaining in popularity when the treatment of textile wastewaters is discussed. The purpose of the book chapter is to bring an overview on the new treatment methods for textile wastewaters, one of the most important source of environmental pollution. Despite the fact that there is no uniform standard currently, many countries have legalized some strict discharging standards and scientists and researchers face new technologies including electrical, sonic, magnetic, optical and thermal methods. Although many researches on treatment of synthetic or real wastewaters with various methods are available, very few researches have been carried out on the cutting-edge technologies. Moreover, there are a lot of review article or book chapters on textile wastewater treatment processes individually based on each conventional process such as coagulation, adsorption, chemical oxidation, and biological decolorization. Therefore, in this part of the book, following major and minor titles are stated truly on the aforementioned new technologies. Besides, these parts are not only about cutting-edge technologies, but also related with conventional methods and their new applications in colored wastewater treatment area briefly.
Part of the book: Textile Wastewater Treatment
Filtration is considered the keystone of water and wastewater treatment and is used for various purposes, such as sludge dewatering and concentrating any solution. Moreover, as an advanced filtration technology, membranes can remove materials ranging from large visible particles to molecular and ionic chemical species. Proper selection of filter media/membrane material in filtration processes is often the most important consideration for assuring efficient separation. Filter media can be classified by their materials of construction, such as cotton, wool, linen, glass fiber, porous carbon, metals, and rayons. Recently, new polymeric materials have been used both individually and/or blended in filtration processes for the treatment of waters and wastewaters. The purpose of this chapter is to bring an overview on the textile-originated filter materials in filtration applications from conventional filtration to advanced membrane processes. Although many researches on filter media are available, very few researches have been carried out on the cutting-edge technologies about using filter materials on filtration processes from classical to advanced membrane processes. Therefore, in this part of the book, following major and minor titles are stated truly on the aforementioned new technologies and linked with conventional methods in water and wastewater treatment applications.
Part of the book: Textiles for Advanced Applications
Forward osmosis (FO) is a technical term describing the natural phenomenon of osmosis: the transport of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane. The osmotic pressure difference is the driving force of water transport, as opposed to pressure-driven membrane processes. A concentrated draw solution (DS) with osmotic pressure draws water molecules from the feed solution (FS) through a semi-permeable membrane to the DS. The diluted DS is then reconcentrated to recycle the draw solutes as well as to produce purified water. As a major disadvantage, nature of FO membranes (asymmetrical structure) causes international concentration polarization (ICP) which promotes the decrease in water flux. Therefore, the number of studies related to improving both active and support layers of FO membranes is increasing in the applications. The purpose of the chapter is to bring an overview on the FO membrane manufacturing, characterizing and application area at laboratory or full scales. This chapter is published in two parts. In the first part, which appears here, the overview of membrane technologies and the definition of forward osmosis process are stated. The manufacturing methods of support and active layers forming FO membranes are described with common and/or new modification procedures.
Part of the book: Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes
Forward osmosis (FO) is a technical term describing the natural phenomenon of osmosis: the transport of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane by osmotic pressure from a feed solution (FS) to a draw solution (DS). The diluted DS is then reconcentrated to recycle the draw solutes as well as to produce puriﬁed water. As the driving force is only the osmotic pressure difference between two solutions, meaning that there is no need to apply an external energy, this results in low fouling propensity of membrane and minimization of irreversible cake forming, which are the main problems controverted by membrane applications, especially in biological treatment systems (e.g., FO membrane bioreactor (FO-MBR)). The purpose of the book chapter is to bring an overview on the FO membrane manufacturing, characterizing and application area at laboratory or full scales. This book chapter is published in two parts. In the second part, which appears here, characterization of mass transport in FO membranes, fouling mechanisms and foulants on FO membranes in naturally asymmetric structure and application areas of FO membranes in the literature are mentioned. Cutting-edge technologies on FO studies are comprehensively reviewed and following major and minor titles are stated truly on the new technologies.
Part of the book: Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes