The residues coming from woodlands and agricultural exploitation constitute the most abundant biomass available on earth. Its importance as a source of renewable energy has grown in addition to the environmental impact. Biomass waste is a lignocellulosic feedstock which contains three main biopolymers: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It could be utilized for the production of a number of value-added products due to their chemical composition, but it is necessary to efficiently recover the valuable biopolymer as intact as possible by different processing techniques.For different applications, the principal objective of pre-treatment is to keep the cellulose intact, meanwhile hemicellulose and lignin are removed. The yields of the fractions depend on the pre-treatment method, which is the most expensive step in biomass conversion. Traditionally, cellulose is obtained by kraft, sulphite and soda treatments. These methods are non-environmentally friendly and generate huge quantities of toxic wastes. Recently developed models considering the environmental laws encourage the sustainable processing of biomass into value-added products. The use of ionic liquids as new solvents for biomass waste and organosolv processes is reviewed, which are used to obtain cellulose. One of the possible applications of cellulose is membrane synthesis, which has been reported for other biomass materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, mango seed and newspaper. In this chapter, some green pre-treatment methods, different sustainable routes for cellulose modification and some of the results obtained on membrane development based on waste biomass are discussed.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Biopolymers