Several decades ago, the first retroviral vectors were constructed. They have been proved as delivery vehicles in basic and translational research; many of them were used in clinical trials in the treatment of genetic and immunologic disorders or malignancies to deliver therapeutic genes into target tissue. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors are popular viral delivery vehicles; their ability to integrate into genome of the host cell enables permanent genetic modification of the target cell and long-term expression of the transgene. Besides classical cancer gene therapy, they are used in cell-mediated cancer gene therapy in combination with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) or neural progenitors. Based on the promising preclinical studies, clinical trials with genetically engineered cell vehicles were initiated.
Part of the book: Advances in Molecular Retrovirology