Endophthalmitis is an ocular inflammation involving vitreous cavity along with the retinal and uveal components of the eye mostly due to infectious agent. The source of infection could be exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous endophthalmitis results from direct inoculation as a complication of ocular surgery, foreign bodies or penetrating ocular trauma, while endogenous endophthalmitis results from haematogenous spread of organisms from a distant source of infection. Endophthalmitis often results in partial or complete loss of vision despite aggressive therapeutic and surgical intervention and hence it is considered as a medical emergency. Diagnosis of infectious agent is critical in the management of these agents. Intravitreal antimicrobial therapy along with anti-inflammatory agents is the key ingredient for successful management of endophthalmitis, while surgical procedures like vitrectomy become necessary in severe endophthalmitis cases. This is a brief review regarding classification, etiological agents causing endophthalmitis, diagnosis and therapeutic challenges of endophthalmitis that will help in improving the visual outcome.
Part of the book: Advances in Common Eye Infections
Enteric protozoa usually cause severe morbidity and mortality in humans. Protozoal infections contribute to the high burden of infectious diseases. Despite recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnostic tool, molecular biology, and treatment of protozoan illnesses, gaps in knowledge still exist; hence, protozoal infections require further research. We are describing here some important enteric protozoal infections along with the immune dysfunction produced by them. Genus- 1. Entamoeba; 2. Giardia; 3. Cryptosporidium; 4. Cyclospora; 5. Cystoisospora; 6. Dientamoeba; 7. Blastocystis; 8. Balantidium.
Part of the book: Innate Immunity in Health and Disease