Plants are continuously exposed to several stress factors in field, which affect their production. These environmental adversities generally induce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to plants. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Due to advances in molecular approaches during the last decades, nowadays it is possible to develop economically important transgenic crops that have increased tolerance to stresses. This chapter discusses the oxidative stress and damage to plants. In addition, it reports the involvement of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerance of plants to various stresses.
Part of the book: Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants
The soybean plant architecture in relation to better solar radiation interception and production gain is an aspect that requires a better understanding, since soybean is an important crop worldwide. The genetic traits, management and environmental conditions are points that further extend the range of issues on crop productivity. The light quality is measured by the red/far‐red (R/FR) ratio (R ∼ 660 nm, FR ∼ 730 nm). This affects the plant growth and morphological developments in different ways. The plant leaves change their angle during the day to better intercept radiation. This heliotropic movement and some computational models together have been used to enhance some agricultural practices. Soybean plant is dependent on the interaction between genotype and environment. Thus, the enhanced understanding in relation to photosynthetic activity, grain yield by light interception efficiency and culture protection managements in soybean are covered.
Part of the book: Soybean