Several arthropod species are important vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants, including protozoa, nematodes, bacteria, and viruses. Arthropods are also pests competing with humans for food and parasitize farm animals, decreasing their productivity. Historically, arthropod pests and disease vectors affecting public health, crop yields, and livestock production have been managed through the intensive use of pesticides. The widespread use of pesticides is a major problem because most of the economically important arthropod species have developed resistance to currently used pesticides. The impact of pesticide resistance is multifactorial and involves losses due to the heavy use of pesticides, environmental pollution, decreased profitability, food contamination, and public health problems due to pesticide exposure. An indirect consequence of pesticide resistance is the mortality caused by arthropod-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria in humans and babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle. The understanding of molecular mechanisms and adaptations to resistance in arthropods is an important issue. However, the molecular mechanisms of pesticide resistance remain to be fully understood. Understanding of resistance mechanisms will contribute significantly to improve integrated managements programs and to discover new targets for vaccine development to mitigate the effects of pesticide-resistant arthropods on agriculture and public health.
Part of the book: Insecticides Resistance