Many methods can be used to protect humans against hazardous chemicals in the environment such as personal protective equipment and protective clothing. However, what matters most is prevention and early detection of threats. Detecting the presence of hazardous chemicals such as organic liquids and the vapours they give off is possible using sensors. Effective chemosensory properties are revealed by conductive polymers and carbon particles, where the electrical resistance of chemicals changes. Still open to debate is finding the optimum means of applying chemical sensors that would provide high sensitivity, durability, reliability, and resistance but at the same time would not be expensive. The authors propose introducing chemical sensors in the form of nonwoven fabrics produced by the melt-blown method and by electrospinning. The analysis takes account of melt-blown nonwoven fabric based on polylactide (PLA)-containing carbon nanotubes, nonwoven fabric made by electrospinning based on polyethylene oxide–containing carbon nanotubes and carbon nonwoven fabric from polyacrylonitrile submicron precursor fibres formed by electrospinning. Assessment of the effectiveness of the sensors to liquid vapours including methanol, acetone, benzene and toluene (concentration 200 ppm) has been carried out. The resulting nonwoven sensors are characterized by good electrical conductivity and altered electrical resistance as a result of the presence of vapours.
Part of the book: Non-woven Fabrics
The authors concentrated their attention on the new area of research, concerning properties of electrically conductive textiles, produced by printing techniques. Such materials can be used for monitoring, for example, the rhythm of breathing. The aim of this study was to develop a sensor of strains for the needs of wearable electronics. A resistance‐type sensor was made on a knitted fabric with shape memory, dedicated to monitor motor activity of human. The Weftloc knitted fabric shows elastic memory—thanks to the presence of elastomeric fibers. The dependence of sensoric properties of the Weftloc knitted fabric on the values of load, its increment rate, and its direction of action was tested. Mechanical parameters including total and elastic strain, elasticity degree, and strength were also assessed. The results indicate an anisotropic character of mechanical and sensoric behaviors of the sensor showing a particularly optimal behavior during diagonal loading. Electro‐conductive properties have been imparted to the Weftloc fabric by chemical deposition of polypyrrole dopped with Cl ions. In addition, authors used as a carrier functional water dispersion of carbon nanotubes AquaCyl that was adapted in the Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile Metrology for forming electrically conductive pathways by film printing method. It was assumed that the electrically conductive paths are sensitive to chemical stimuli. Studies of the effectiveness of the sensors for chemical stimuli were conducted for selected pairs of liquids. The best sensory properties were obtained for the methanol vapor—the relative resistance (Rrel.) at the level above 40%. In the case of nonpolar liquid vapor, the sensoric sensitivity of the printed fabric was much lower, with Rrel. level below 29%. Properties of the electrically conductive materials, such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and resistance to chemicals, allow for widely using them nanotechnology.
Part of the book: Printed Electronics
The acoustic thermoplastic composites and a method for their production with the participation of the bio-components were presented. To form composite matrix polylactide fibres (PLA) were used. Natural fibres (flax (LI) and cotton (CO)), straw and cellulose ultra-short/ultra-fine fibres obtained from biomass were used as a reinforcement. Cellulose ultra-short/ultra-fine fibres were obtained from the flax fibres or straw by enzymatic treatment and optionally modified by silane. The tensile stress at maximum load of composites with the sub-microfibres obtained from waste flax fibres after silane modification is twice higher than that of the composite with the sub-microfibres without the silane modification.
Part of the book: Composites from Renewable and Sustainable Materials