Since its inception, colonoscopy has evolved to become the cornerstone for colorectal imaging. The increasing indications for endoscopic evaluation and potential therapeutic intervention parallels technological advances and the expanding diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of colonoscopy. The diagnostic and therapeutic yield of colonoscopy is highly user dependent. Thus, it is essential for the clinical endoscopist to perform a thorough endoscopic evaluation and be cognizant of normal and pathologic findings. This review details normal and pathologic endoscopic findings in a variety of disease states that are often encountered by the clinical endoscopist including colon polyps, inflammatory bowel disease, and infectious and non-infectious colitides. In addition, we review the diagnostic and therapeutic role of colonoscopy in the evaluation of an acute lower gastrointestinal bleed.
Part of the book: Screening for Colorectal Cancer with Colonoscopy