The cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer in the world and presents a higher chemical variability for presence of several hydroxyl groups. These hydroxyl groups allow surface modification of biomaterials, with insertion of several chemical groups which change cellulose characteristics. This natural biopolymer and its derivatives have been used a lot as adsorbent, from several contaminants of aqueous medium due to biocompatibility, chemical degradability, and variability. Therefore, this chapter has the objective to review the literature about several cellulose surfaces or cellulosic material (incorporation of carboxymethyl, phosphorus, carboxyl, amines, and sulfur), presenting the main characteristics of reactions and showing its adsorption in application of aqueous medium (metals, dyes, and drugs), locating the main interactions between biomaterial/contaminant.
Part of the book: Cellulose
Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer of nature, and it is widely used in the synthesis of new materials as well as in the adsorption of dye. This study reports a literature review (articles) and technology review (patents) about publications and product invention, which contain information on the use of cellulose on the adsorption of dyes in the period 2004–2014. For this work, research database and keywords were used to find articles and patents related to the subject under review. Specific words were used to find articles and patents related to the subject under review. After a demanding research, 1 patent and 23 articles that contain the words “cellulose,” “dye,” and “adsorption or sorption” in their titles were assessed, and annual evolution studies were performed for publications and countries that publish more.
Part of the book: Cellulose
Hydroxyapatite stands out between biomaterials due to its properties of osteoconduction and osteoinduction, being adequate to be used in bone grafts. The high stability and flexibility of the structure allows for several biomedical applications, for example, the use as polysaccharide based on the scaffold formulations and the cationic substitutions occurring through the doping of the material using metals, which may enhance biological characteristics, such as improving the action of combating bacterial infections in situ. This study was a research of articles and patents, without and with time restriction (2007–2017), which contain information about hydroxyapatite in the tissue engineering, biomedical, doped with cerium and its properties of antibacterial activity. There were also searches of products and companies that commercialize these types of materials aimed at tissue engineering area. Scopus was used for searched of articles and were EPO, USPTO, and INPI used for patents, and to search for products and companies were used search engines. Few papers were found to associate all the keywords, but the ones found are recent works, thus showing a new area with potential to be investigated.
Part of the book: Biomaterials