The Frankia actinorhizal plant symbiosis plays an important role in colonization of soils contaminated with toxic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our understanding of the bacterial partner, Frankia, in the actinorhizal symbiosis has been greatly facilitated by the availability of sequenced genomes. The analysis of these Frankia genomes has suggested that these bacteria are metabolically diverse and have potential for toxic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. In this chapter, we explore what is known about that metabolic potential.
Part of the book: Actinobacteria
Exposure to lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and selenite (SeO3−2) consider the main heavy metals that threat human health. These heavy metals can interfere with the function of vital cellular components. Soil heavy metal contamination represents risks to humans and the ecosystem through drinking of contaminated groundwater, direct ingestion or the food chain, and reduction in food quality. Bioremediation means cleanup of polluted environment via transformation of toxic heavy metals into less toxic form by microbes or its enzymes. Otherwise, bioremediation by microbes has limitations like production of toxic metabolites. The efflux of metal ions outside the cell, biosorption to the cell walls and entrapment in extracellular capsules, precipitation, and reduction of the heavy metal ions to a less toxic state are mechanisms to metals’ resistance.
Part of the book: Environmental Chemistry and Recent Pollution Control Approaches