Poncho is a commercial formulation of neonicotinoid insecticides and a new agrochemical in Mexico, and it has the active ingredient clothianidin. The genotoxic effects of this commercial formulation of clothianidin on CD1 male mice were analyzed using micronucleus and comet alkaline assays. Three concentrations of clothianidin (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/body weight) as well as negative (deionized water) and positive controls (cyclophosphamide 40 mg/g/body weight) were intraperitoneally injected into groups of mice every 3 days for 21 days. Peripheral blood samples were drawn from the caudal vein and divided to carry out the comet alkaline and micronuclei assays. DNA damage was evaluated using three genotoxicity parameters: the comet frequency, the tail length, and the moment from 100 nuclei. Additionally, the micronuclei frequency was quantified in 2000 peripheral blood erythrocytes using Giemsa stain. The results of the comet assay showed that the neonicotinoid insecticide Poncho leads to a significant increase in these three genotoxic parameters and in micronuclei frequency in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice treated with either concentration as compared with negative controls. At 80 mg/kg/body weight of Poncho, higher micronuclei frequencies and many more DNA strand breaks were observed compared with the negative controls. This study demonstrates that the commercial neonicotinoid insecticide Poncho induces genotoxic effects in CD1 male mice.
Part of the book: Toxicity and Hazard of Agrochemicals