Schistosoma infection is a poverty-related parasitic infection, being the second most important neglected tropical disease in the world after malaria. Schistosomiasis is caused by five distinct Schistosoma species distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. But, imported cases can also be seen in non - endemic areas. Human populations acquire infection after exposure to contaminated water collections. Schistosoma infection falls on a large spectrum of clinical manifestations that ranges from absence of signs and symptoms to severe forms of disease. Although morbidity and mortality have been reduced along the years after use of mass drug administration (MDA) in endemic areas, large populations are still at risk of disability-related outcomes on daily basis. Recently, a great deal of debate has been done over two main issues in schistosomiasis management in endemic and non-endemic areas: how to accurately diagnosis Schistosoma infections pre and post-therapy in addition to assess morbidity level. Adoption of promising new diagnostic tools and development of new markers of disease progression might change the current scenario by improving schistosomiasis clinical management in both community and institutional settings.
Part of the book: An Overview of Tropical Diseases