Understanding herbicide transformation is necessary for pesticide development for their safe and efficient use, as well as for developing pesticide bioremediation strategies for contaminated soil and water. Recent studies persuasively demonstrated the key role of soil white-rot fungi in biotransformation of various anthropogenic environmental contaminants. However, often this common knowledge is not associated with specific metabolic processes of fungi and therefore cannot be transformed into specific recommendations for agricultural practice. The given review offers a systematic collection and analysis of the current knowledge about herbicide transformation by white-rot fungi at the cellular and molecular levels. Special attention is given to the role of oxidative enzymes such as laccases, lignin peroxidases, and manganese peroxidases in the biotransformation processes.
Part of the book: Herbicides
This chapter considers factors influencing sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassay and modern developments that are focused on reaching lower detection limits. The existing variety of proposed approaches is classified in accordance with the “big five rules” for these assays, including proper sample, receptor, interaction, response, and output. The solutions for rapid extraction of target analytes and preventing negative influence of extractants are considered. Role to antibodies affinity and specificity is characterized. Potential of alternate bioreceptor molecules is discussed. Immunoreactants’ compositions, concentrations, and locations on the test strip are characterized as factors determining assay parameters. The existing variety of labels is compared in terms of their optical and alternate registration. Tools to modulate a sequence of analytical reactions and to form aggregates of the detected labels are considered. The discussed approaches are illustrated through developments of test strips for detection of mycotoxins, veterinary drugs, and other analytes.
Part of the book: Rapid Test