Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular parasitic pathogens that can survive and multiply in professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. These pathogens are responsible for brucellosis, which can cause abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. Brucella spp. can survive in a variety of cells and their virulence and chronic infections are thought to be due to their ability to evade the killing mechanisms within host cells, one of which is the inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Lipid raft-associated molecules, such as GPI-anchored proteins, GM1 ganglioside, and cholesterol, are selectively integrated into Brucella-containing macropinosomes following the internalization of Brucella into macrophages, continuously sustaining a dynamic state of the phagosomal membrane. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important systems that detect microbial invasion via recognition of microbial components that triggers signaling pathways to promote the expression of genes and regulate innate immune responses. Recent several studies have revealed the importance between TLRs-Brucella interactions to control Brucella infection. Here, we reviewed selected aspects of lipid raft-associated molecules and TLRs-Brucella interaction, which may help to understand the mechanism of Brucella pathogenesis.
Part of the book: Updates on Brucellosis