Brucellosis is considered the major zoonosis in developing countries. In susceptible animal species, diagnosis of brucellosis remains a challenge due to the variety of clinical signs that it shares with a wide range of diseases. At present, isolation of Brucella is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of brucellosis; because of its low sensitivity and becoming potentially hazardous to laboratory technicians, serology is used for the detection of specific antibodies induced by infection. However, since traditional methods commonly show drawbacks and do not differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected animals, it is necessary to search and test immunoreactive molecules for specific diagnosis of Brucella-infected cattle, thus significantly reducing the killing of suspected herds mainly due to vaccination. Advances in biotechnology have allowed exploring the use of recombinant proteins as antigens to avoid the risk involved in the use of viable Brucella strains. The benefit of using recombinant proteins, such as outer membrane proteins (OMP) and other non-lipopolysaccharide (non-LPS) molecules as antigens, for serological diagnosis is promising, but there are still many concerns about their application. The aim of the present work is to show advances in the use of recombinant antigens and discuss their advantages and potential use as markers for the serological diagnosis in brucellosis.
Part of the book: Updates on Brucellosis
Modern life implies a constant exposure of living organisms to many sources of radiation, especially electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by our technological devices. The question of whether or not EMFs in the non-ionizing extremely low frequency (ELF) range can induce genotoxic effects is currently a subject of interest. People of industrialized societies are commonly exposed to EMFs and waves in a very broad range of frequencies, including power lines, telecommunications, and domestic and industrial equipment. In this review, we present controversial evidence from our research group and others of genotoxicity induced by ELF-EMFs, since scientific community consider EMF devices produce marginal amounts of energy, which does not justify any DNA alterations, together with conflicting laboratory results and few epidemiological studies. However, in 2002 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorized ELF-EMFs as being potential carcinogenic and genotoxic agents to humans. The aim of the present chapter is to discuss the role of ELM-EMFs on human genotoxicity.
Part of the book: Genotoxicity