Field studies were conducted from 2006 to 2010 under weed-free conditions in south Texas and in the Texas High Plains to determine sesame tolerance to applied postemergence-directed herbicides. Injury was greatest when herbicides were applied to 15 cm of the main stem compared to herbicide applications made to 5 cm of the main stem height. Glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae/ha and pyrithiobac-sodium at 0.07 kg ai/ha resulted in the greatest sesame stunting (28–90%) when applied up to 15 cm main stem height, while carfentrazone-ethyl, flumioxazin, and imazethapyr caused greatest injury when applied to 5 cm of the main stem. When glyphosate was applied up to 5 cm main stem height, sesame injury was 20% or less. Glyphosate applied up to the 15 cm stem height and pyrithiobac-sodium applied 5 and 15 cm stem height consistently reduced sesame yield when compared with the nontreated control. Acetochlor, diuron, fluometuron, and prometryn did not cause any sesame stunting. Carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, propazine, pyraflufen-ethyl, linuron, and linuron plus diuron reduced sesame yield in at least one year in south Texas.
Part of the book: Herbicides
Harvest aids are traditionally used to desiccate weeds to improve crop quality and harvest efficiency. Field studies were conducted in Texas to determine the effect of harvest aids (glyphosate, diquat-dibromide, glufosinate-ammonium, and carfentrazone-ethyl) on sesame drydown and yield. The objective was to identify one or more harvest aids that could (1) accelerate drydown, (2) burn-down green weeds, (3) even up a field with varying levels of drydown, (4) stop regrowth, (5) stop vivipary, and (6) prepare to plant a new crop. Other than diquat-dibromide, the herbicides were chosen based on the effect on weeds in other crops. The plan was to apply the herbicides 1 week before physiological maturity (PM), at PM, and 1 week after PM. However, sesame maturity is very sensitive to ground moisture, ambient temperature, and relative humidity. The weather was different in all trials and some stages could not be completed. In two cases, the trials had to be abandoned; however, certain patterns emerged. All the herbicides accelerated drydown compared to the untreated check. Diquat-dibromide and glufosinate-ammonium dried sesame faster than glyphosate and carfentrazone-ethyl. The higher rates of the herbicide dried down the sesame faster than the low rate. Although there were some differences in yields across the three application periods, there was no consistent pattern.