Human echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection caused by larval forms (metacestodes) of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Among the recognised species, Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis are of considerable medical importance, causing cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE and CE), respectively. The factors of immunology, host-genetic inherits, and Echinococcus genetic-diversity and adaption clearly influence infectious establishment and disease progression. However, subtle mechanisms between host and parasite interactions/relationships are still open to study for answers. Despite the global burden, echinococcosis remains a neglected zoonosis. The importance of environmental factors influencing the transmission intensity and distribution of Echinococcus species is increasingly being recognised. The intervention strategies for this public health threat have integrated host immune-genetic research, parasite adaptation, and genetic diversity analysis, as well as the transmission dynamic investigations; the limitations of current control programmes are clearly presented in this study that hampers the elimination of Echinococcus species worldwide. Continuous efforts by multidiscipline researches are needed.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Echinococcosis
Echinococcosis is caused by infection with larva (metacestode) of the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Within genus Echinococcus, two species are known as public health concern worldwide: Echinococcus guanulosus causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) and Echinococcus multilocularis causing alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The co-evaluation due to the interaction between parasites and their hosts has been well known to be able to allow tolerating to maintain parasitism as long as possible. With many research advanced findings, scientists have been much interested in using either those molecules from parasites producing due to invading and surviving or those cytokines from hosts responding due to defenses to carry out immunotherapeutic practice that is not only against parasitic infection but also for cancer or other immunological related disorders. Taken advance of knowledge on Echinococcus genome research outcomes, recent attentions regarding the discoveries of targeting antiparasitic drug and/or vaccine were extensively discussed in this review.
Part of the book: Echinococcosis