Nonparasitic hepatic cysts constitute a heterogeneous group of disorders. A proper diagnosis of hepatic cyst is necessary in order to adopt the best treatment. The term hepatic cyst usually refers to simple hepatic cysts. Nonparasitic hepatic cysts are also linked to genetic disorders such as polycystic liver disease (PLD) with/without autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) or Caroli disease. Generally, patients with nonparasitic hepatic cysts less than 3 cm are asymptomatic. These cysts become symptomatic when are large, multiple, or complicated. Percutaneous abdominal ultrasound is the best imaging modality to diagnose hepatic cysts but must be completed by other imaging and serological tests. It is important to differentiate simple hepatic cyst from hydatid cyst, cystadenoma, and cystadenocarcinoma before proceeding with the treatment. Sometimes the diagnosis is very challenging. Asymptomatic single liver cysts need only surveillance, but symptomatic and complicated ones require therapeutic intervention. Percutaneous aspiration of the cyst under ultrasound guidance is a mini-invasive procedure generally associated with sclerotherapy. The highest success rates were reported for laparoscopic or open cyst fenestration. Liver transplantation is indicated for patients with severe PLD.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Liver Diseases and Surgery
Hepatic adenoma is known as a benign lesion encountered mainly in female patients and classically linked to the administration of oral contraceptives. In the last decade, the risk factors for its occurrence have changed and so did the sex ratio. The histopathological classification of hepatic adenomas was found to be related with certain genetic mutations that determine the risk for malignancy. The diagnosis of hepatic tumor is correlated with clinical and imaging data in an effort not only to rule out other tumors but also to distinguish the subtype of adenoma, which is very important for the management of the patient. The ultimate diagnosis is established by pathologists by routine histopathological and specific immunohistochemical staining. There are two major issues that pathologists need to recognize: the presence of β-catenin gene mutation and/or malignant degeneration. The best imaging examination is considered to be MRI. However, along with MRI, ultrasound and computer tomography have proved themselves to be effective not only in evaluating the number, size, localization, and complications of hepatic adenomas, but also in identifying their subtype. A detailed presentation of characteristics of all groups of hepatic adenoma is provided. The means of management of hepatic adenomas are documented and decisional algorithm is explained, based on certain criteria.
Part of the book: Liver Disease and Surgery