The investigations of superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces have been given a lot of attention in the last few decades. The surfaces having water contact angle larger than 90° are termed as hydrophobic surfaces and those which exhibit contact angle higher than 150° are said to be superhydrophobic. Such surfaces were first observed in nature in various plants and animals, for example, lotus leaf-like structures. Water repellence of various materials have shown great influences on various applications such as self-cleaning, anti-ageing, water-oil separation, water corrosion in electrical industry, water proof textiles, controlled transportation of fluids, etc. Generally, surface micro/nanostructuring combined with low surface energy of materials leads to extreme anti-wetting properties. The hundreds of research articles and more than 450 patents on the subject of nature mimicking self-cleaning surfaces prove the potential of this topic.
Part of the book: Surface Energy