This chapter is devoted to the advances in the field of nanoparticles-mediated cancer treatment. A special attention is devoted to the use of magnetite and silver nanoparticles. The synthesis and properties of Fe3O4 and Ag nanoparticles as contrast or antitumoral agents as monolith or component of more complex systems such as polymer matrix composite materials based on: polymers (chitosan, collagen, polyethylene glycol, polyacrylates, and polymethacrylates, polylactic acid, etc.) and various antitumoral agents (cytostatics, natural agents and even nanoparticles-magnetite, silver, or gold) are discussed. Special attention is paid for the benefits and risks of using silver and magnetite nanoparticles. In both cases, the discussion focuses on aspects related to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The influence of size and shape [1-3] is important from the materials characteristics as well as from the biological points of view. The role of magnetite is also analyzed from the point of view of its influence on the delivery of different components of interests (antitumoral components, analgesics/anti-inflammatory agents, etc.). The potentiating effect of the nanoparticles over the cytostatics and natural components is highlighted.
Part of the book: Nanomaterials