In this study, a simple, sensitive, and low cost electrochemical biosensor for the quantitative determination of carbamate pesticides has been constructed. A composite consisting of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene oxide was electrochemically synthesised on a platinum electrode. This sensor platform was then used in the biosensor construction by electrostatic attachment of the enzyme, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto the surface of the Pt/GO-PANI electrode. Voltammetric results concluded that HRP immobilised on the Pt/GO-PANI composite retained its bio-electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2 and was not changed during its immobilisation. The Pt/GO-PANI/HRP biosensor was then applied to successfully detect standard carbamate pesticides in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB; pH = 6.8) solution. Various performance and stability parameters were evaluated for the Pt/GO-PANI/HRP biosensor, which included the optimal enzyme loading, effect of pH and long-term stability of the biosensor on its amperometric behaviour. The Pt/GO-PANI/HRP biosensor was finally applied to the detection of three carbamate pesticides of carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl using the enzyme inhibition method. Carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl analyses were amperometrically determined using spiked real samples of orange, pear, and grapes, within a concentration range of 0.01–0.3 mg/L. These results indicated that the biosensor is sensitive enough to detect carbamate pesticides in real fruit matrices. The detection limit for carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl in real fruit samples by amperometric method was determined to be 0.136 mg/L, 0.145 mg/L, and 0.203 mg/L, respectively. The application of the Pt/GO-PANI/HRP biosensor has demonstrated that the biosensor is sensitive enough for amperometric detection and could be a useful tool in the screening of these pesticides at low concentrations.
Part of the book: Biosensors