Nitroaromatics are major pollutants released in the environment during the post-industrialization era and pose toxic effects to living organisms. Several bacterial strains have been isolated for the degradation of these nitroaromatic pollutants. Some of them have been used in field trial experiments for the removal of nitroaromatics from industrial water and groundwater. Very few bacterial pathways have been characterized at genetic and molecular levels. In this review, we cover all reported degradation pathways and their gene evolution. These studies for nitroaromatics clearly indicate that most of the involved genes have evolved from preexisting enzymes by using all means of gene evolution like horizontal gene transfer, mutation, and promiscuity principle. This information has been exploited for the creation of hybrid pathways and better biocatalysts for degradation.
Part of the book: Wastewater Treatment Engineering