This chapter discusses about subclinical processes related to insulin resistance development that worsen the muscle metabolic functions, generated by factors such as lifestyle (bad quality food intake and sedentary behavior) and aging. Also discussed are the effects of regular physical exercise as a strategy to prevent the metabolic impairment in organisms, approaching since muscle subclinical molecular processes to the whole body’s integrative physiology. Insulin resistance development includes modification in the pattern of inflammatory cytokines, heat shock proteins, tissue- specific defects in insulin action and signaling, oxidative stress and ectopic lipid deposition. The exercise is a known modulator of all parameters listed above and has important role in the regulation of “immune-metabolic” homeostasis from the muscle to the whole body. This chapter aims to present a new molecular approach related to the control of metabolism and encourage scientists and students to propose new strategies against insulin resistance and diabetes type 2 developments.
Part of the book: Muscle Cell and Tissue