This chapter describes the main aspects about distributed generation (DG) systems and investigates the operation of DG systems based on static power converters connected to weak grids. Initially, the concept of DG is discussed, and the main topologies for the connection of DG systems to the grid are covered. Converters used in such applications are also introduced. When connected to weak grids, DG systems based on static power converters suffer with problems related to the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the connection point. To address this issue, initially, a definition of weak grid is presented. Then, the dynamic behaviour of the most common small DG system when connected to a weak grid and the relation between the voltage harmonic distortion and the weak grid impedance are analyzed. Aiming to comply with the THD requirements, the main topologies of passive filter used in the connection of inverter-based DG units with weak grids are also discussed. Finally, a controller design that considers the grid side impedance in its formulation is developed. Experimental results are provided to support the theoretical analysis and to illustrate the performance of the grid-connected DG in a weak grid case operation scenario.
Part of the book: Renewable Energy
This chapter presents the modeling, simulation, and emulation for small wind turbine (WT) systems. The main objective of the emulation system is to reproduce the WT torque dynamic behavior in the generator shaft, which must be similar to one of real horizontal WTs used for distributed generation. The aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical models for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are presented in detail. The models are used for simulation analysis and emulation synthesis. The emulator consists a (i) computational platform, which is based on LabVIEW® environment and runs the model of the WT and (ii) an induction motor (IM) with AC power drive with torque control. The IM shaft is directly coupled with the real small wind generator and corresponding load. Experimental waveforms are also presented to demonstrate the functionality of the system.
Part of the book: Wind Turbines