Sajal Ray received his MSc and MPhil degrees in Zoology and Environmental Science, respectively, from Calcutta University and was awarded his PhD from Jadavpur University. As an awardee of a Fogarty Visiting Fellowship, Dr. Ray carried out his postdoctoral research into cardiac pathology at the National Institutes of Health, Maryland, USA. His research interest is studying the immunological responses of mollusks, sponges, crabs, and earthworms exposed to common and emerging pollutants. His team is engaged in understanding the evolutionary mechanism of immunity in phylogeny. He presented his research to the World Congress of Malacology at Washington, DC. Dr. Ray, currently a professor of zoology at Calcutta University, has been teaching zoology for nearly 30 years at postgraduate level.