Sajal Ray received an MSc in Zoology and MPhil in Environmental Science from Calcutta University, India, and a Ph.D. from Jadavpur University, India. His thesis reported the immunotoxicity of pesticides in an economically important snail of India. As a recipient of the Fogarty Visiting Fellowship, Dr. Ray carried out his postdoctoral research in cardiac pathology at the National Institutes of Health, USA. His research interest is studying the immunological responses of molluscs, sponges, crabs, and earthworms exposed to pollutants. His team is engaged in understanding the evolutionary mechanism of immunity in phylogeny. He has presented his research at various conferences including the World Congress of Malacology, Washington DC. Dr. Ray is currently a Professor of Zoology at Calcutta University.